animation-fill-mode property CSS Reference

Definition and Usage

The animation-fill-mode CSS property specifies how a CSS animation should apply styles to its target before and after it is executing.

  • Initial none
  • Applies to all elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-element
  • Inherited no
  • Media visual
  • Computed Value as specified
  • Animatable no
  • Canonical order the unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar


Formal syntax: <single-animation-fill-mode>#
animation-fill-mode: none
animation-fill-mode: forwards
animation-fill-mode: backwards
animation-fill-mode: both
The # indicates that several values may be given, separated by commas.
Each applies to the animation defined in the same order in animation-name.
animation-fill-mode: none, backwards
animation-fill-mode: both, forwards, none


The animation will not apply any styles to the target before or after it is executing.
The target will retain the computed values set by the last keyframe encountered during execution. The last keyframe encountered depends on the value of animation-direction and animation-iteration-count:
animation-direction animation-iteration-count last keyframe encountered
normal even or odd 100% or to
reverse even or odd 0% or from
alternate even 0% or from
alternate odd 100% or to
alternate-reverse even 100% or to
alternate-reverse odd 0% or from
The animation will apply the values defined in the first relevant keyframe as soon as it is applied to the target, and retain this during the animation-delay period. The first relevant keyframe depends of the value of animation-direction:
animation-direction first relevant keyframe
normal or alternate 0% or from
reverse or alternate-reverse 100% or to
The animation will follow the rules for both forwards and backwards, thus extending the animation properties in both directions.


h1 {
  animation-fill-mode: forwards;


Desktop browsers

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support (Yes)-webkit 5.0 (5.0)-moz
16.0 (16.0)
10 12-o

Mobile browsers

Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support NA 5.0 (5.0)-moz
16.0 (16.0)

Relative articles